A clinical study with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) in a novel untried combination is the first ovarian cancer clinical trial to incorporate gut flora analysis. Dr. Emese Zsiros, the study’s Principal Investigator, explains a new, unique clinical trial investigating immunotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
A new clinical study underway at Roswell Park Cancer Institute is the first to test the combination of the immunotherapy Keytruda with two other drugs as treatment for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, and is also the first ovarian cancer clinical trial to incorporate analysis of patients’ microbiomes — the bacteria present in the human gut and other organs.
This new study, led by Dr. Zsiros Assistant Professor of Oncology in Roswell Park’s Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Center for Immunotherapy is a phase II clinical trial that will enroll approximately 40 patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, and will evaluate the impact of the combination of the PD1-targeting antibody Keytruda with intravenous Avastin (bevacizumab) and oral Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) on antitumor immune responses and on progression-free survival.
Keytruda has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of advanced melanoma, some metastatic non-small cell lung cancers and recurrent squamous cell head/neck carcinoma, but has only been tested in a small number of ovarian cancer patients, as a single drug and showing modest response. The investigators say a strong scientific rationale supports their hypothesis that the combination of Keytruda with two other drugs that have already been approved to treat ovarian cancer — Avastin and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide — may have much broader benefit for patients.
“Our biggest hope is that by trying these three drugs in combination, we can significantly extend the lives of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. We also hope to minimize the side effects associated with chemotherapy drugs, and to markedly improve the quality of our patients’ lives,” says Dr. Zsiros. “We will be looking at potential biomarkers that will tell us who can most benefit from this therapy combination and to better understand how cancer cells and immune cells communicate with one another so that we can design better medications to kill cancer efficiently.“
As part of this study, the clinical team will analyze blood, tumor, stool, vaginal and skin microbiome samples, looking to identify possible associations between these markers with clinical outcomes and tumor response. The study, which is supported by a grant from Merck & Co. Inc., maker of Keytruda, will be one of the first to analyze these bacteria to determine possible associations with response to immunotherapeutic agents in patients with cancer.
“We’re looking at how to improve our immune defenses to cancer, but we’re looking at it from a variety of angles,” says Dr. Zsiros. “There’s a whole new area of research suggesting that what’s going on in our gut, our gut flora, has a huge influence on your overall health and happiness, and this study will extend that work into some new directions.”
According to the National Cancer Institute, epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women.