Is There a Vaccine for Breast Cancer?

Is There a Vaccine for Breast Cancer?

Vaccines contain cells or antigens which, when injected into the body, cause an immune response with the production of antibodies and immune lymphocytes (T-cells) that specifically attack the injected cell or antigen. These antibodies and immune lymphocytes normally attack and kill invaders such as bacteria, viruses and parasites. Vaccines have been widely used to control and even eradicate infectious diseases such as polio and smallpox.

For many years there have been attempts to use the principles of vaccination developed in infectious diseases to get the body to attack and kill cancer cells. This type of treatment is included in the broad category of cancer therapy know as immunotherapy. One problem limiting success of cancer vaccines is that the body, in general, does not recognize cancer cells as being foreign to the body which is a requirement for initiating an immune response.

The application of immunotherapeutic principles to the treatment and prevention of breast cancer is a relatively new undertaking. Although cancer vaccines have been extensively studied in other cancers such as melanoma, the therapeutic efficacy of these approaches is not well explored in breast cancer. However, like melanoma, under certain circumstances breast cancer cells can elicit an immune response. Recently, several breast cancer antigens which can induce an immune response in patients have been identified. This has led to enthusiasm for testing vaccines for the treatment of breast cancer.

One advance in the theoretical application of cancer vaccines is a better understanding of the stage of cancer in patients most likely to benefit from immunization. When we are vaccinated to prevent an infectious disease, we receive immunization before we are exposed to the germ to prevent us from getting infected. Similarly, cancer vaccines will probably not be effective for patients with bulky, metastatic disease; rather, vaccines will be most useful for patients whose cancer is in remission, but who are at high risk of relapse from minimal residual disease. Therefore, the use of vaccines is an attractive strategy for the prevention of breast cancer relapse in patients without measurable cancer but who have a high chance of recurrence. Other advantages of vaccines include the killing of breast cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapy and, in general, vaccines are not toxic as are most other treatment modalities for breast cancer.

There are two types of vaccine strategies currently being tested in patients with breast cancer: (1) cell-based vaccines, and, (2) breast cancer antigen specific vaccines.

Prior to the identification of specific cancer antigens, whole cancer cells were the main component of cancer vaccines. Vaccines utilizing an intact cancer cell or cancer cell lysates, i.e. broken down cancer cells, have the theoretical advantage of exposing multiple cancer specific antigens to the immune system of the patient. Both autologous cancer cells (breast cancer cells from the patient’s own tumor) and allogeneic tumor cells (breast cancer cells from another person) have been used in the vaccination of breast cancer patients. Autologous breast cancer vaccines are weakly immunogenic, that is, they don’t stimulate strong immune responses in patients. Furthermore, not every breast cancer patient will have enough cancer cells to develop a vaccine.

There are many strategies under investigation for trying to make breast cancer cells more recognizable by the immune system, such as engineering them to secrete immune stimulation factors called cytokines. Unfortunately, many strategies which would improve the immune stimulatory properties of whole cancer cell vaccines, require that the breast cancer cells be grown outside the body so that they may be altered in culture systems. Unlike other cancers such as melanoma, which can be grown very well in laboratory cultures, breast cancer cells are difficult to expand once removed from the patient. Thus, autologous cellular vaccines have limited clinical applicability.

Allogeneic breast cancer vaccine cells do not require removal of tissue from the patient and are less expensive to prepare as they have already been established in culture. Some breast cancer cell lines grow well in culture and are widely available. Furthermore, allogeneic cells appear to be more immunogenic as they are foreign and may induce a strong T-cell response against common cross-reacting breast cancer antigens. Despite these benefits, clinical studies of allogeneic breast cancer cellular vaccines indicate that the vaccines are still not capable of generating very robust tumor specific immune responses.

Breast cancer antigen specific vaccines offer several advantages to the whole cancer cell approach. First, antigen specific vaccines are easy to formulate. The vaccines, which target a specific immunogenic breast cancer related protein, are similar to infectious disease vaccines in that they can be used to immunize any patient whose tumor bears the antigen. The goal would be the generation of an immune response that would kill cancer cells bearing that antigen. In addition, targeting a specific protein in breast cancer would allow very specific measurement of the generation of an immune response. Thus, antigen specific breast cancer vaccines are a good starting point for developing effective immunization strategies for breast cancer therapy.

Our group has been studying the HER-2/neu oncogenic protein as an immune target in breast cancer. HER-2/neu is a growth factor receptor protein that is found in abundance in about 30% of breast cancers and is most likely directly related to uncontrolled cancer growth. We have been conducting clinical trials of vaccines directed against the HER-2/neu protein using a variety of different strategies. These initial clinical trials are designed to determine the toxicities associated with vaccine administration and to measure the immune responses generated by the vaccines. Patients who do not generate a measurable immune response are unlikely to have a benefit from vaccination.

In one clinical trial of the first 22 patients to complete 6 vaccinations with a vaccine composed of fragments of the HER-2/neu protein called peptides, 16 (73%) developed T cell immunity to the HER-2/neu protein. There has been essentially no toxicity, except local irritation, from the administration of these vaccines. It is too early to estimate whether or not there is a benefit from this vaccine.

Several strategies for improving the effectiveness of cellular vaccines as well as immunization regimens targeting specific breast cancer antigens are currently being tested in patients with breast cancer. Once a vaccine has shown the ability to robustly immunize breast cancer patients the most important question can be asked- does immunity to breast cancer prevent cancer from recurring? This question can only be answered in the context of carefully designed clinical trials enrolling large numbers of patients with similar disease characteristics. It is our hope the role of cancer vaccines in the fight against the breast cancer will be defined over the next few years. In the meantime patients with breast cancer are encouraged to enroll in clinical trials attempting to improve vaccine therapy.

Comments (7)
No. 1-7
edidia okoko
edidia okoko

BEST TRADITIONAL HERBAL DOCTOR WHO CAN CURE CANCER.  Just wanna say a big thank you Sandra Garcia for introducing me to Dr Idedia the great HERBALIST that helped me prepare home remedies that cured my sister CANCER DISEASE

She was infected with Cancer disease for the past two years and she was not happy all day so i was desperate to get a cure so that she can live normal and get healthy. One day i was less busy so i decided to make latest research on cancer cure and i found a site were everyone was talking about Dr Idedia and has ability to cure all chronic disease cancer and all manners of infections and virus. So i discussed with Sandra garcia and she explained to me that its very easy working with Dr Idedia so i contacted Dr Idedia via email (dr.idediatraditionalhealinghome@gmail.com) and he helped me just as he has helped others now my sister is now cured she is very happy now. and i can also assure you that he can also help you. so if you need the service of DR IDEDIA, i have put his details here so that you can easily get in touch with him. contact him dr.idediatraditionalhealinghome@gmail.com or whatsapp +2349074505296. visit his websites  https://dr-idedia-traditional-healing-home9.webnode.com/ Or https://sites.google.com/view/dridediatraditionalhealinghome/ Or https://dr-idedia-traditional-healing-home.business.site/he can as well cure Psorasis, copd, Extreme vaginal burning & pain, Reoccurent vaginal yeast infections, Candida overgrowth, Cystitis, cancer,ALS, Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias, Arthritis, Asthma,Cystic Fibrosis,kidney disease,Herpes,hiv,hpv.

benhucho
benhucho

Greetings to every one here. I want to let every one know that HPV is a serious and deadly disease which can't be cured through drugs or injections by the American doctors but the best way to deal with HPV is by taking natural herbs medicine for it to flushes out the virus and is only few American doctors that know about this herbal medicine from DR IYOHA a great herbalist doctor. I have read about Dr tokubo the great herbalist doctor from African who can cure HPV with his powerful herbal medicine. for the people suffering from the following diseases Epilepsy, Hiv, Herpes, Cancer, Als, Hepatitis, Diabetes, Hpv,Infections ETC should contact him for his herbal medicine because his herbal medicine cured all kinds of diseases or virus, i am telling you all this because i am a living testimony and i was cured of Hpv. and my child was cured of epilepsy. Although, i sent him what he requested and he sent me his medicine which i took for two weeks and today when i went for test i was tested Hpv negative. you can reach him through his Email: driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com And you can also call him through his number : +1 (407) 337-9869

veraandy
veraandy

Hi i am Vera Andy from USA I have just experience the wonders of Dr Iyoha love spell, that have been spread on the internet and worldwide, How he marvelously helped people all over the world to restored back their marriage life and get back lost lovers, and also help to win lottery what ever problem you have. finding hard to get a job or for your business to prosper . I contacted him after going through so many testimonies from different people how he help to bring back ex lover back, i told him about my husband that abandoned me about 6 months ago, and left home with all i had.. Dr Iyoha only told me to smile and have a rest of mind he will handle all in just 24 hours, After the second day my husband called me, i was just so shocked, i pick the call and couldn't believe my ears, he was really begging me to forgive him and making promises on phone.. He came back home and also got me a new car just for him to proof his love for me. i was so happy and called Dr Iyoha and thanked him, he only told me to share the good news all over the world ..Well if your need an effective and real spell caster contact Dr Iyoha Via email:driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com or call him +1 (407) 337-9869

jessie1o1
jessie1o1

I am greatful to Dr. Harry, the powerful herbal healer that rescued me from HERPES virus. I was diagnosed of these virus in 2012 and because of this, I was very unhappy with my life and I went into research on how I can get cured and I saw a testimony of a woman Stancy on how she was cured from HERPES by Dr. Harry, I decided to give him a try and when I contact him, he assure me that he will help me and send me the cure and I believed in him because all I wanted was to be cured, so he prepared a herbal cure for me and send it to me through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it and after 15 Days I should go to hospital for checkup and after the 15 days of using the herbal medicine, I went to the hospital for test and to my surprise the test stated that I am HERPES Negative and I am fully cured from the virus. This gladdens my heart and everybody in the hospital was surprised even the Medical Doctor, So viewers Dr. Harry is a God Gifted man and he can cure so many diseases. You can contact him through his email: drharryherbs@gmail.com I will continue to share this great testimony on the internet and all over the world for the good job Dr. Iyoha has done for me. Email: drharryherbs@gmail.com

DR HARRY CAN ALSO CURE THE FALLOWING DISEASES.

1 Cancer of all kind 2 Hiv/aids 3 Low sperm count 4 Barrenness 5 Hpv 6 Herpes 7 Genital Wart 8 Rare disease 9 Hepatitis 10 Zika virus 11 ALS

Jack0147
Jack0147

I haven't seen a man that is more powerful and has fast/effective medication than Dr Korofo in terms of herbal medication and spell casting. My mother has being suffering from breast Cancer for many years now and after all the medication from different herbal Drs and hospital/pharmacy, Dr Korofo was the only Dr that was able to cure and made my mom healthy. We only met Dr Korofo on Instagram and I contacted him for help and that was how he solved our problems after explaining my moms condition to him. Dr Korofo is ready to help anyone suffering from any type of Cancer or any diseases at all such as HIV, herpes, Hepatitis B and C, Fibroid, Seizure's, ALS, Alzheimer's, kidney problem, Vitiligo, Liver problem, Diabetes and many more. You can get in touch with him through the following contact info if you need his help in any way Dr korofo help: Email: greatkorofosolutionhome@yahoo.com Facebook page: https://web.facebook.com/A-place-where-you-can-get-your-problems-solved-no-matter-the-situation-659772167547824/ Thank you the Great Korofo I and my entire family will forever be grateful to you for saving our mom.

mary john
mary john

ALL THANKS TO DR OSO WITH HIS HERBAL PORTION I WAS COMPLETELY CURED FROM BREAST CANCER. I'm here again to appreciate. DR OSO God will always continue to bless you more abundantly, for the good works you don in my life, I will always keep on writing good and posting my testimonies about you on the Internet, I’m MARY JOHNSON from TEXAS . I was tested breast cancer positive, I saw a blog on how DR OSO cured people with his herbal portion, i did not believe in natural medicine but i just decided to give him a try, I contacted him,and explain my situation to him,few day later he sent me the herb, after taking DR OSO herbal medicine for few weeks i went to hospital for check up so luckily i was healed with his herbal portion, i am so happy. If you have any type of cancer problem or you are also infected with any kind of disease, contact him drosohaberhome@gmail.com or call/whatapp +2348162084839 for advice and for his product,i hope this testimony also help some one out there ..

         here is the  dr website.

His blog page https://drosohaberhome.blogspot.com

you can also email me for more info about DR oso via maryjohnson9700@gmail.com ALL THANK TO DR OSO .................

mary john
mary john

ALL THANKS TO DR OSO WITH HIS HERBAL PORTION I WAS COMPLETELY CURED FROM BREAST CANCER. I'm here again to appreciate. DR OSO God will always continue to bless you more abundantly, for the good works you don in my life, I will always keep on writing good and posting my testimonies about you on the Internet, I’m MARY JOHNSON from TEXAS . I was tested breast cancer positive, I saw a blog on how DR OSO cured people with his herbal portion, i did not believe in natural medicine but i just decided to give him a try, I contacted him,and explain my situation to him,few day later he sent me the herb, after taking DR OSO herbal medicine for few weeks i went to hospital for check up so luckily i was healed with his herbal portion, i am so happy. If you have any type of cancer problem or you are also infected with any kind of disease, contact him drosohaberhome@gmail.com or call/whatapp +2348162084839 for advice and for his product,i hope this testimony also help some one out there ..

         here is the  dr website.

His blog page https://drosohaberhome.blogspot.com

you can also email me for more info about DR oso via maryjohnson9700@gmail.com ALL THANK TO DR OSO ........