Cervical cancer diagnosed as stage II disease is commonly detected from an abnormal Pap smear or pelvic examination. Following a staging evaluation of cervical cancer, a stage II cancer is said to exist if the cancer has extended beyond the cervix to the upper portion of the vagina (stage IIA) or to the tissues next to the cervix, called the parametria (stage IIB). Patients with stage II cervical cancer are generally treated with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Some patients with stage IIA disease can undergo a radical hysterectomy, sometimes followed by a course of radiation therapy.
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The following is a general overview of the diagnosis and treatment of stage II cervical cancer. Recent advances in treatment have resulted in new treatment options that reduce symptoms and improve survival. Each person with stage II cervical cancer is different, and the specific characteristics of your condition will determine how it is managed. The information on this Web site is intended to help educate you about treatment options and to facilitate a shared decision-making process with your treating physician.
Stage II cervical cancer is currently best managed by a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is treatment with high energy x-rays that have the ability to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be administered via a machine that aims x-rays at the body (external beam radiation) and/or by placing small capsules of radioactive material directly into and near the cervix (internal or implant radiation). Most patients will receive both types of radiation therapy during their course of treatment. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer is administered on an outpatient basis for approximately 4 to 6 weeks.
During or immediately following the external beam portion of radiation therapy, patients may also undergo an implant radiation procedure. Placing the radiation within the cervix allows a high dose of radiation to be delivered to the cancer, while reducing the radiation to the surrounding normal tissues and organs. During a procedure in the operating room, a small device is placed into the cervix and vagina and later is “loaded” with radioactive material. The radioactive material is left in place while the patient stays in the hospital for 1-3 days. This process may be performed once or twice during the course of treatment.
Prior to the 1990s, the standard treatment of stage II cervical cancer had utilized external beam and internal radiation therapy and no significant progress in the treatment of cervical cancer occurred for many years. Approximately 60% of patients with stage II cervical cancer survived 5 years from treatment with radiation therapy alone. More recently, however, the addition of chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs) has improved long-term outcomes in patients with this disease.
Chemotherapy, such as Platinol®, 5-fluorouracil and other drugs, has the ability to kill cancer cells and make radiation therapy more effective at killing cancer cells. The strategy of administering chemotherapy concurrently with radiation treatment is appealing because chemotherapy and radiation therapy may act together to increase the killing of cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also destroy cells independently of radiation therapy. Several clinical studies performed in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer utilizing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy have suggested that this strategy may improve remission rates and prolong survival. In order to definitively determine whether radiation therapy administered with concurrent chemotherapy is superior to radiation therapy alone, several clinical studies were designed to directly compare the two treatments in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.
One recent pivotal clinical trial conducted by various oncology groups in the United States has shown that radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer is superior to treatment with radiation therapy alone. In this study, 403 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus concomitant 5-fluorouracil and Platinol® chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate of patients with stage IB, IIA, or IIB cervical cancer was 77% for patients treated with concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy, compared to only 50% for patients treated with radiation therapy alone. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy were well tolerated except for minor gastrointestinal and hematologic side effects, which were reversible.
In summary, the combination Platinol® chemotherapy administered concurrently with radiation produces superior overall survival and a decreased risk of cancer recurrence compared to treatment with radiation therapy alone. Continued research is ongoing to determine whether additional chemotherapy drugs or doses of radiation may improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. At least four other clinical studies have confirmed that treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer with concurrent Platinol®-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy is superior to radiation therapy alone.
Even with combination chemotherapy and radiation treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients with stage II cervical cancer experience recurrence of their cancer. In some patients, cancer cells may have survived near the cancer despite the radiation therapy. Other patients with stage II disease already have small amounts of cancer that have spread outside the cervix and were not treated by the chemotherapy. These cancer cells cannot be detected with any of the currently available tests. Undetectable areas of cancer outside the cervix gland are referred to as micrometastases. The presence of these microscopic areas of cancer or surviving cancer cells can cause the relapses that follow treatment.