The results from a planned interim analysis of the ENDEAVOR head-to-head clinical trial comparing Kyprolis® (carfilzomib) to Velcade® (bortezomib), each combined with low-dose dexamethasone have demonstrated that the Kyprolis® treated patients lived twice as long without their disease worsening.1
About Multiple Myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells, which are a special type of white blood cell that are part of the body’s immune system. Patients with multiple myeloma have increased numbers of abnormal plasma cells that may produce increased quantities of dysfunctional antibodies detectable in the blood and/or urine. Multiple myeloma is characterized by a recurring pattern of remission and relapse.1 It is a rare and very aggressive disease that accounts for approximately one percent of all cancers.2,3 In the U.S., there are nearly 95,000 people living with, or in remission from, multiple myeloma.4 Approximately 30,330 Americans are diagnosed with multiple myeloma each year and 12,650 patient deaths are reported on an annual basis.4
Kyprolis belongs to a class of drugs known as proteasome inhibitors. They work by preventing the breakdown of protein in cancer cells, triggering their death. Proteasomes play an important role in cell function and growth by breaking down proteins that are damaged or no longer needed.5 Kyprolis has been shown to block proteasomes, leading to an excessive build-up of proteins within cells.5 In some cells, Kyprolis can cause cell death, especially in myeloma cells because they are more likely to contain a higher amount of abnormal proteins.5,6
Patients with multiple myeloma who have become refractory—or resistant—to drugs used as initial therapy like Revlimid have limited treatment options. There is no standard treatment for these patients and they typically have a poor prognosis.
The ENDEAVOR study was designed to evaluate Kyprolis versus Velcade, an established proteasome inhibitor. ENDEAVOR enrolled 929 patients with relapsed multiple myeloma and directly compared Kyprolis to Velcade. Initially reported results of the study reveled that patients with relapsed multiple myeloma treated with Kyprolis lived twice as long without their disease worsening compared to Velcade.7 Kyprolis treated patients survived on average 18.7 months compared to only 9.4 months for those receiving Velcade. Overall survival and long-term safety information are now available; Kyprolis reduced the risk of death by 24 percent: patients survived on average for 47.8 months compared to 38.8 months for Velcade. The Kyprolis combination was also reported to have higher overall response rates and less neuropathy.
2. Jakubowiak A. Management Strategies for Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Current Clinical Perspectives. Seminars in Hematology. 2012; 49(3)(1),S16-S32.
3. GLOBOCAN 2012. Global Prevalence and Incidence. Available at: http://globocan.iarc.fr/old/summary_table_pop_prev.asp?selection=224900&title=World&sex=0&window=1&sort=0&submit=%C2%A0Execute%C2%A0. Accessed on January 6, 2017.
4. American Cancer Society. Multiple myeloma. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/multiple-myeloma/about.html. Accessed on July 12, 2017.
5. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Myeloma. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/mulmy.html. Accessed on January 6, 2017.
6. Moreau P, Richardson PG, Cavo M, et al. Proteasome Inhibitors in Multiple Myeloma: 10 Years Later. Blood. 2012; 120(5):947-959.
7. Amgen. 2015. Phase 3 Head-to-Head ENDEAVOR Study Demonstrates Superiority Of Kyprolis® (carfilzomib) Over Velcade® (bortezomib) In Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma. Mar. 1.
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