Class: Supportive Care
Generic Name: palonosetron (pal-eh-OSS-eh-tron)
Trade Name: Aloxi®
How is this drug used? Palonosetron is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy that is likely to cause nausea and vomiting either on the day of treatment or up to five days following treatment.
What is the mechanism of action? Palonosetron belongs to a class of drugs called antiemetics. Nausea and vomiting may be caused by the release of serotonin with the use of some chemotherapy agents. The serotonin binds to cell receptors called 5-HT3 which stimulates the vomiting reflex. Palonosetron helps to prevent nausea and vomiting by blocking 5-HT3 receptors so that the serotonin is not able to bind to the receptor and initiate the vomiting reflex.
How is palonsetron given (administered)? Palonsetron is administered into a vein (intravenous) prior to chemotherapy.
How are patients monitored? Patients will usually have scheduled meetings and physical exams with their healthcare provider while they are being treated with palonosetron given in association with chemotherapy. Patients may undergo physical examinations or other measures to assess side effects and response to therapy. Monitoring for palonosetron includes assessments of its ability to prevent nausea and/or vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
What are the most common side effects of treatment with palonsetron?
This is not a complete list of side effects. Some patients may experience other side effects that are not listed here. Patients may wish to discuss with their physician the other less common side effects of this drug, some of which may be serious.
Some side effects may require medical attention. Other side effects do not require medical attention and may go away during treatment. Patients should check with their physician about any side effects that continue or are bothersome.
What can patients do to help alleviate or prevent discomfort and side effects?
- Pay careful attention to the physician’s instructions and inform the physician of any side effects.
- Maintain adequate rest and nutrition.
- Wear sunscreen and protective clothing and try to minimize sun exposure.
- Drink plenty of fluids. (Patients should ask their physician about the amount of liquid to consume during a day.)
Are there any special precautions patients should be aware of before starting treatment?
- Patients should inform their physician if they are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a family in the near future. This drug may cause birth defects. It is important to use some kind of birth control while undergoing treatment. Also, patients may want to talk to their physician if they are considering having children in the future, since some drugs may cause fertility problems.
- It is important that patients inform their physician of any pre-existing conditions (chicken pox, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, lung disease, etc.) as they may worsen with this drug.
- Patients should inform their physician of any other medication they are taking (whether prescription or over-the-counter, including vitamins, herbs, etc.) as they may interfere with treatment.
- Patients should check with their physician before starting any new drug or nutritional supplement.
- Patients should inform their physician of any known drug or food allergies or any reactions to medications they have experienced in the past.
When should patients notify their physician?
- Severe or persistent headache
- Severe or persistent dizziness
- Severe weakness
- Swelling of the feet or ankles
- Change in heart rate or rhythm
What is a package insert?
A package insert is required by the FDA and contains a summary of the essential scientific information needed for the safe and effective use of the drug for healthcare providers and consumers. A package insert typically includes information regarding specific indications, administration schedules, dosing, side effects, contraindications, results from some clinical trials, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the specific drug. By carefully reviewing the package insert, you will get the most complete and current information about how to safely use this drug. If you do not have the package insert for the drug you are using, your pharmacist or physician may be able to provide you with a copy.
Last updated on 09/16.
Important Limitations of Use
The information provided above on the drug you have selected is provided for your information only and is not a substitute for consultation with an appropriate medical doctor. We are providing this information solely as a courtesy and, as such, it is in no way a recommendation as to the safety, efficacy or appropriateness of any particular drug, regimen, dosing schedule for any particular cancer, condition or patient nor is it in any way to be considered medical advice. Patients should discuss the appropriateness of a particular drug or chemotherapy regimen with their physician.
As with any printed reference, the use of particular drugs, regimens and drug dosages may become out-of-date over time, since new information may have been published and become generally accepted after the latest update to this printed information. Please keep in mind that health care professionals are fully responsible for practicing within current standards, avoiding use of outdated regimens, employing good clinical judgment kin selecting drugs and/or regimens, in calculating doses for individual patients, and verifying all dosage calculations.
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